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社會走向法西斯的十個步驟

最後,無所不用其極維持肅殺的常態。
社會走向法西斯的十個步驟

「我想提醒在座各位,在到達終極解決方法(final solution)之前,必然有第一步,第二步,甚至第三步,到最後一步;沒有一蹴即就,事情總是一步,一步,一步發生。」

1995 年諾貝爾文學裝得主 Toni Morrison 在 Howard University 的畢業禮上,發表了「社會走向法西斯的十個步驟」(Ten Steps to Fascism)⋯⋯

01,樹立假想敵;既可聚焦,亦能轉移視線。

Construct an internal enemy, as both focus and diversion.

02,縱容污衊詆毀、孤立、妖魔化敵人;令口誅筆伐,人身攻擊,變得合理。

Isolate and demonize that enemy by unleashing and protecting the utterance of overt and coded name-calling and verbal abuse. Employ ad hominem attacks as legitimate charges against that enemy.

03,招攬培植烏合之眾;讓他們從散佈謠言、仇恨的過程中,得到利益、權力和成就。

Enlist and create sources and distributors of information who are willing to reinforce the demonizing process because it is profitable, because it grants power and because it works.

04,隔絕一切藝術表達形式;凡挑戰政權造神運動,抑或妨礙妖魔化敵人的一切人和事,都要被監控、貶抑、流放。

Palisade all art forms; monitor, discredit or expel those that challenge or destabilize processes of demonization and deification.

05,認同敵人的,以及敵人的任何象徵,都要禁止。

Subvert and malign all representatives of and sympathizers with this constructed enemy.

06,從敵人陣營招攬內應,令肅清的過程更乾淨利落。

Solicit, from among the enemy, collaborators who agree with and can sanitize the dispossession process.

07,透過學院和大眾媒體,將敵人描繪成病態;例如借科研和傳說,不斷強調種族優劣,令病態論述更顯得自然。

Pathologize the enemy in scholarly and popular mediums; recycle, for example, scientific racism and the myths of racial superiority in order to naturalize the pathology.

08,將敵人變成罪犯;為囚禁敵人,尤其是敵陣的男性及年青人,作準備,留資源,找理由。

Criminalize the enemy. Then prepare, budget for and rationalize the building of holding arenas for the enemy — especially its males and absolutely its children.

09,以丁點的快慰、誘惑、幾分鐘的片段、幾行句話、無意義的成就、權力和影響力的假象、少許樂趣、少許時髦和無關痛癢的後果,通過浮誇但空洞的娛樂,獎勵不加思索、無情的群眾。

Reward mindlessness and apathy with monumentalized entertainments and with little pleasures, tiny seductions, a few minutes on television, a few lines in the press, a little pseudo-success, the illusion of power and influence, a little fun, a little style, a little consequence.

10,最後,無所不用其極維持肅殺的常態。

Maintain, at all costs, silence.